em dash, en dash

Subscribe to The Chicago Manual of Style Online. It allows, in a manner similar to parentheses, an additional thought to be added within a sentence by sort of breaking away from that sentence—as I’ve done here. Paren­the­ses, how­ever, imply that the in­for­ma­tion en­closed in them is “op­tional”; if you don’t read it, you will still un­der­stand the sen­tence as it was in­tended. A flock of sparrows – some of them juveniles – alighted and sang. The dash can also be used to mark off words or statements that are not important to the meaning of the statement. Insert an Em or En dash using shortcut keys. En dash. It is a dash longer than an en dash (–) and three times as long as a hyphen (-). The em dash is used to show a break in a sentence. 1. The en dash (–) is slightly wider than the hyphen (-) but narrower than the em dash (—). The em dash (— or -- [on an old-fashioned typewriter]) is the most commonly used type of dash and is often simply referred to as a dash. That’s nonsense. Em Dash (—) Em Dash gets its name from the width of it, which is roughly one ‘M’ long or two ‘N’ long (Em is a typographical unit twice the length of en—and almost the length of capital 'M'). Span or range of numbers. In fact, the em dash is named after its length—it’s about the same width as the capital letter M. Its alphabetical cousin, the en dash, is about the same width as the letter N. Figuratively speaking, the hyphen pulled the short end of the stick. to break the flow of thoughts). The en dash is used to represent a span or range of numbers, dates, or time. 2. It comes most com­monly in pairs and has a func­tion sim­i­lar to paren­the­ses (i.e. The en dash is approximately the length of the letter n, and the em dash the length of the letter m. The shorter en dash (–) is used to mark ranges. Although many people call the hyphen a “dash,” dash refers to another group of horizontal lines in text. Writers shouldn’t overuse the em dash either; it … Em Dash: An em dash is useful to display how a person changes his subject mid-sentence or gets interrupted by an external disturbance. Is that your dog? The en dash derives its name from the … An em dash (—) is used as a substitute for a comma, colon, semi-colon or parentheses. The em dash is the mark most of us picture when we hear the term dash. The en dash is used to indicate a range of numbers. Now, that is a rather fussy use of the en dash that many people ignore, preferring the hyphen. Revised on February 11, 2020. This method uses the Replace dashes option under Tools > AutoCorrect > Options to replace one or two hyphens, under certain conditions, with the corresponding dash.. There are two similar but distinct punctuation marks called dashes: the en dash (– ) and the em dash (— ).In appearance, an en dash is slightly longer than a hyphen (- ), approximately the width of a capital N, while an em dash is slightly longer than an en dash, approximately the width of a … Revised on February 11, 2020. How can you say that ‘The dash is one of the most important punctuation marks in the English language’? These events took place between 1990–1997 along the Paris-London route. These example sentences could also be written with parentheses or commas. The dash we are discussing today is the ‘em dash,’ which is the width of an ‘m.’ An em dash (—) is a versatile punctuation mark. in pairs, to mark off information or ideas that are not essential to an understanding of the rest of the sentence: Thousands of children—like the girl in this photograph—have been left homeless. (Based on CMOS recommendations outlined in this blog post.) The dash can also be used in places where a comma would be typically used. As you can see, the em dash is the longest of the three, and roughly the width of the letter m, which is how it got its name. Glitter, felt, yarn, and buttons—his kitchen looked as if a clown had exploded. So, the example of em dash shown above is not good examples. An en dash or en rule (–) is wider than a hyphen (-) and narrower than an em dash (–). An em-dash is typically used as a stand-in for a comma or parenthesis to separate out phrases—or even just a word—in a sentence for various reasons (e.g. Learn the noun phrase definition, …, What is a parenthesis? Dashes are used to separate two words into statements. In interrupted speech, one or two em dashes may be used: “I wasn’t trying to imply——” “Then just what were you trying to do?” Also, the em dash may serve as a sort of bullet point, as in this to-do list: This explanation is not intended to be exhaustive (for much more, see chapter 6 in CMOS), but I do hope that it helps to frame the different potential of each length of dash. To create an Em dash, use the shortcut key combination Ctrl + Alt + minus. It should be noted that dashes are almost never required by the rules of grammar and punctuation. The Chicago Manual of Style is a registered trademark of The University of Chicago. The em dash is an incredibly versatile punctuation mark that can be used instead of parentheses, commas, colons, or quotation marks in a sentence. CMOS editors share writing tips, editing ideas, interviews, quizzes, and more! The em dash has a fan club of sorts, as writers love to debate its many uses (and possible overuses). And that series of words was so profoundly absurd that it gave me a migraine. It is significantly longer than the hyphen.We use the em dash to create a strong break in the structure of a sentence. It is used in writing or printing to indicate a range or connections. The em-dash (“—”) is the longest dash in com­mon use. It can also be used for clarity in forming complex compound adjectives. It’s quite a versatile punctuation mark, but shouldn’t be used more than twice in a single sentence. Dashes are not hyphens and are used in several ways. a parenthetical; an ersatz-ellipsis). Note. (And yes, the en dash is named because it’s the width of the letter n.). What is (.) It also may be used to indicate something missing. Em dashes and en dashes (— vs –) Published on May 31, 2019 by Amy Luo. Site Map The em dash/ long dash (—) is different from en dash (–) and hyphen (-). A note about the en dash: Because the en dash is starting to be used less frequently, this lesson will not cover it in depth. An em dash is also known as a long dash. The en dash is approximately the length of the letter n, and the em dash the length of the letter m. The shorter en dash (–) is used to mark ranges. The two most common dashes are the em dash and the en dash. And in fact en dashes specify any kind of range, which is why they properly appear in indexes when a range of pages is cited (e.g., 147–48). Fun fact: the en dash is the width of the letter “N”, while the em dash is the width of the letter “M”. An em dash can serve as a comma. The em dash (—) and the en dash (–) in English! The en dash is a symbol (–) that is slightly wider than a hyphen (-). 3. En-dashes are used to express a range (“5–10 year sentence”). The em dash has several uses. Learn …, What is a pronoun? I had a great vacation in Bali — oh! 4. An em dash is mostly used to set apart a phrase or clause. There are two types of dash. Notwithstanding its versatility, the em dash is best limited to two appearances per sentence. each of them have various roles to play in making the written word comprehensible. Examples where an em-dash should be used: School is based on the three R’s—reading, writing, and ’rithmetic. Why is it called em dash? The en dash and em dash are less easy. On a Mac, the keyboard shortcut Option + Dash (-) makes an en dash, and Option + Shift + Dash (-) makes an em dash. However, the pros use these shortcuts:In MS Word: Ctrl + Minus Key (with Num Lock enabled)In Pages: Option/Alt + Hyphen or Minus Key (with Num Lock enabled)Google Docs is typographically more basic, but if you use Google Docs a lot, you should take the time to set up a shortcut like those above by going to Tools>Preferences. The long dash is used to create emphasis. En Dash: Just like em dash, an en dash’s size is the width of the letter ‘N.’ Hyphen: The hyphen is exactly half the size of an en dash. The typical computer keyboard lacks a dedicated key for the en dash, though most word processors provide a means for its insertion. People tend to prefer the en-dash is it looks cleaner and less heavy in comparison to the em-dash. It gets its name—no big surprise here—because it's the width of an M. Only one solution was left — revenge! 2. Dashes, on the other hand, em­pha­size what’s in­side them; com­pare the fol­low­ing sen­tences: 1. An em dash or a spaced en dashcan be used to mark a break in a sentence, and a pair can be used to set off parenthetical statements. 1. First of all, there are three lengths of what are all more or less dashes: hyphen (-), en dash (–), and em dash (—). En dash: – Em dash: — 2em dash: ⸺ Dashes that set off text and replace alternative punctuation The EN DASH and the EM DASH can be used to set off an augmenting or explanatory word or phrase in a sentence that could stand alone without the insertion. There are two types of dash. Account Management, About the University of Chicago Press The em dash (—) sets off a word or clause and adds emphasis. Use the knowledge you’ve learned above and try not to peek at the answers below! Sometimes, an em dash is used in the same manner as a bullet point or to show an interruption between two people engaged in a dialogue. It is still used to denote number ranges (please read pp. If you are looking for an easy way to type this em dash in Word, you’ve come to the right place. Against all odds, Pete—the unluckiest man alive—won the lottery. Note. In the following table, the A and B represent text consisting of letters A to z or digits 0 to 9. 1994 – 1996 (1994SpaceHyphenSpace1996) Once you hit the space key after the second word, the hyphen will form an en dash. To create an En dash, use the shortcut key combination Ctrl + minus. In this section, we are going to …, Present Continuous Spelling Rules – Learn useful spelling rules (-ING …, What is a full stop? However, on a MAC keyboard, there is a simple short cut. In US usage, En dashes join two numbers that are written numerically, not spelled. I did… It separates distinct parts of a sentence by adding a discernable pause that’s stronger than a comma, but not as abrupt as a colon, semicolon or pair of parentheses. A hyphen’s main job is to let the reader know that two or more words in a sentence are linked together.The most common use is in a compound adjective— two or more adjectives joined together to modify the same noun—that comes before the noun. Insert an Em or En dash using shortcut keys. The en dash is used to indicate distance. Or, it can signal an interruption (see our article on interrupting sentences for more on that!) You can always use an Insert>Symbol function to insert a proper en dash into your writing. Unfortunately, the em-dash — and the en-dash (–) for that matter — is not popular enough to deserve its own place on the keyboard. The en dash is known as the “short dash… The en dash often shows range or connections. The dash is one of the most important punctuation marks in the English language. Em Dash vs. En Dash: A Quick and Simple Guide March 19, 2017 July 18, 2011 by Vappingo In the battle of the em dash vs. the en dash it is critical that writers are aware of the major differences between the two punctuation marks and that they ensure they use them correctly and in the appropriate format in their written documents. Between 1–3 inches of rainfall fell last night. Terms of Use To create an En dash, use the shortcut key combination Ctrl + minus. He’s so cute! An em dash, or long dash, is used:. Can you spot any errors in the use of en dashes or em dashes in the below sentences? En dash To type an en dash, press the alt/option key and the hyphen key together, and to type an em dash, hold down the upper-case key while pressing the alt/option key and hyphen key together. It’s also the longest of the dashes (e.g., hyphen, en dash). Em dashes are used to separate phrases—as you would use commas, parentheses, semicolons, colons, ellipses—and isolate ancillary thoughts, offset examples, signal an interruption, or indicate emphasis. The Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition text © 2017 by The University of Chicago. Num Lock must be enabled and you need to use the minus key on the numeric keypad. What is an em dash? Em dashes and en dashes (— vs –) Published on May 31, 2019 by Amy Luo. If you have a numeric keyboard, hold down the Alt key and type 0151 for an … Depending on the context, the em dash can take the place of commas, parentheses, or colons⁠—in each case to slightly different effect. The em dash indicates a sudden change of thought in a sentence. Its use or misuse for this purpose is a matter of taste, and subject to the effect on the writer’s or reader’s “ear.”. Noting that people have proclaimed their love of this punctuation mark with em dash tattoos, the New York Times called it “the bad boy, or cool girl, of … Num Lock must be enabled and you need to use the minus key on the numeric keypad. It allows, in a manner similar to parentheses, an additional thought to be added within a sentence by sort of breaking away from that sentence—as I’ve done here. The Em Dash can be typed as two En Dashes. Grammar. It is primarily used to replace “through” or “to” in spans of time and ranges of numbers: I read pages 34–96 last night from 10:00–11:00pm. 4. A. I will try to condense the various bits of information scattered throughout CMOS. The hyphen connects two things that are intimately related, usually words that function together as a single concept or work together as a joint modifier (e.g., tie-in, toll-free call, two-thirds). The Chicago Manual of Style Online © 2006, 2007, 2010, 2017 by The University of Chicago. 2. On the other hand, the em dash is usually used in places where a comma could also be used. Creating an en dash. The em dash (—) is twice as long as the en dash (–). These example sentences could also be written with a colon or a semicolon. The en dash connects things that are related to each other by distance, as in the May–September issue of a magazine; it’s not a May-September issue, because June, July, and August are also ostensibly included in this range. So, using our em dash example above of 12px, the en dash would be 6px wide. On a Mac, the keyboard shortcut Option + Dash (-) makes an en dash, and Option + Shift + Dash (-) makes an em dash. Em dash. Usage. The Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition text © 2010 by The University of Chicago. or amplification (“expanding”) of an idea. What is a noun phrase? For example, in a bibliographic list, rather than repeating the same author over and over again, three consecutive em dashes (also known as a 3-em dash) stand in for the author’s name. 20,000-volume Em Dash vs. En Dash: A Quick and Simple Guide March 19, 2017 July 18, 2011 by Vappingo In the battle of the em dash vs. the en dash it is critical that writers are aware of the major differences between the two punctuation marks and that they ensure they use them correctly and in the appropriate format in their written documents. The em dash has several uses. The rules for using an en-dash are less fixed than for other kinds of punctuation, and some fonts are missing this character altogether.It is less commonly used than the hyphen or the em dash. About The Chicago Manual of Style called? Instead, you’ll need to use a shortcut. The en dash (–) is slightly wider than the hyphen (-) but narrower than the em dash (—). Use Em Dashes to Set Off Parenthetical Information Creating an en dash can be done by either: [ctrl] and the minus sign on the numpad or [alt] 0150 (on the numpad) Em dash. Of the three similar types of punctuation—hyphens, en dashes, and em dashes—the en dash is generally the least common, and the most confusing. Learn how and when to use an en dash in English with useful rules and examples. Hyphen, en dash or em dash A hyphen (-) is used to connect two words that function as a particular concept, or when linked together form a particular modifier. Or a semicolon in making the written word comprehensible a vertical List in informal writing you hit the space after. The hyphen ( - ) and possible overuses ) different from en dash ) a substitute a. The numeric keypad and the em dash indicates a sudden break or interruption in dialogue to. Alternatively, in MS word, you can type two hyphens together to get em... Ms word, you can type two hyphens together to get an em dash ( long dash, use shortcut! Dashes join two numbers that are not hyphens and are used to express a range of numbers to. Type two hyphens together to get an em dash is perhaps the most important punctuation in... To use an en dash, use the minus key on the other hand, the of. Or commas you need to use …, List of Genders of Nouns on a MAC keyboard, there a! Noun phrase definition, …, Future Continuous Tense Bali — oh less! 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Them ; com­pare the fol­low­ing sen­tences: 1 CMOS editors share writing tips, editing ideas, interviews quizzes..., Pete—the unluckiest man alive—won the lottery the fol­low­ing sen­tences: 1 to display how a person changes subject! Of the statement the noun phrase definition, …, what is rather... In usage between an em dash is used: comma would be 6px wide 5–10... Years, where traditionally the em-dash ( “ expanding ” ) and a... To separate two words into statements words was so profoundly absurd that it gave me a.. Unluckiest man alive—won the lottery text © 2017 by the rules of grammar and punctuation most versatile mark! Compound: for example, pre–World War II “ dash, use the shortcut key combination +! Could also be used for clarity in forming complex compound adjectives the knowledge you ’ ll need use... And an en dash or parentheses refers to another group of horizontal lines in text ” dash refers another! Of dashes, the em dash is the width of the letter n. ) two per... For its insertion an interruption ( see our article on interrupting sentences for more on that! be. Expanding ” ) showing a range or connections and are used in places where a comma would be used! Be used for marking of unimportant words List of Genders of Nouns a semicolon be an of! Of em dash is mostly used to show a break in a sentence code get. Mac keyboard, there is a rather fussy use of the en dash ( — ) sets off word! ( i.e and adds emphasis Continuous Tense 2017 by the University of Chicago but shouldn ’ t be used play... The hyphen.We use the shortcut key combination Ctrl + minus for a comma, colon, semi-colon or parentheses Once. Hyphen ( - ) but narrower than the hyphen - ) is different from en dash is a longer! Profoundly absurd that it gave me a migraine sparrows – some of them have various roles to play making! Club of sorts, as writers love to debate its many uses ( yes... Though most word processors provide a means for its insertion ( - ) of Genders Nouns! And ’ rithmetic i didn ’ t happen very often to me—so i just smiled and need. Hyphen, en dash ( – ) punctuation mark, but shouldn ’ t be to! To paren­the­ses ( i.e or printing to indicate a range ( “ — ” is. S—Reading, writing, and buttons—his kitchen looked as if a clown had exploded consisting letters! People call the hyphen ( - ) but narrower than the em dash, the! To represent a span or range of numbers Alt + minus, it can also be for..., and the en-dash many uses ( and possible overuses ) not spelled cleaner less... To condense the various bits of information scattered throughout CMOS Only one solution was left — revenge dash. Not spelled them ; com­pare the fol­low­ing sen­tences: 1 ) sets off a word or clause and emphasis... That it gave me a migraine that many people ignore, preferring the.!, there is a parenthesis in usage between an em dash in places where a comma also... Less heavy in comparison to the right place and possible overuses ) ; com­pare the fol­low­ing sen­tences: 1 we... The en dash, is used: School is Based on CMOS recommendations outlined in blog... Notwithstanding its versatility, the en dash, though most word processors provide means... Online © 2006, 2007, 2010, 2017 by the University of Chicago the rules of grammar punctuation! 6Px wide Online © 2006, 2007, 2010, 2017 by the University of.. Are used to show a break in a single sentence of 12px, the a and B represent text of! Gets interrupted by an external disturbance alive—won the lottery a rather fussy use the... Refers to another group of horizontal lines in text must be enabled and need. And hyphen ( - ) the following table, the en dash is mostly used show... Along the Paris-London route versatile punctuation mark, but shouldn ’ t be used to indicate a or. Article on interrupting sentences for more on that! any errors in the following table, hyphen! Odds, Pete—the unluckiest man alive—won the lottery Alt code to get an em dash is used... Dashes are the em dash ( — vs – ) and three times as long as a hyphen ( ). Each of them have various roles to play in making the written word comprehensible happen very often me—so! And ESL worksheets – 1996 ( 1994SpaceHyphenSpace1996 ) Once you hit the key... Profoundly absurd that it gave me a migraine less simple: you need to use the shortcut key combination +... Throughout CMOS important punctuation marks in the use of en dashes are also used to the right place for insertion... Writing, and more most com­monly in pairs and has a func­tion sim­i­lar to paren­the­ses ( i.e letter n... Versatility, the em dash is used to separate two words into statements simple short...., and the en dash is useful to display how a person changes his subject em dash, en dash! On a MAC keyboard, there is a rather fussy use of en dashes sen­tences:.. Scattered throughout CMOS errors in the following table, the em dash Only one was. Are used to indicate a range of numbers, dates, or long dash, ” refers! Fol­Low­Ing sen­tences: 1 when to use dashes with examples and ESL worksheets than the hyphen.We use the shortcut combination! Of them juveniles – alighted and sang dashes with examples and ESL.! Perhaps the most important forms …, Placing adverb before or after verb?. Odds, Pete—the unluckiest man alive—won the lottery use the shortcut key combination +! Its many uses ( and yes, the a and B represent text consisting of letters to., colon, semi-colon or parentheses © 2006, 2007, 2010, 2017 by the of! This be an instance of a dash or en dash, is used in several ways to a proper em dash, en dash... Word comprehensible sentence ” ) of an idea MS word, the hyphen will form en...??????????????????... And punctuation two numbers that are written numerically, not spelled range or connections second word you... One-Half the width of an ‘ m, ’ hence the name an em dash and an en dash be. Come to the right place in the below sentences try to condense the bits.

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